The Brazilian striker will miss their final group game at home to Juventus for "violation of the principles of conduct".
Adriano scored after team-mate Willian attempted to give Nordsjaelland possession of the ball following a break for injury, rounding the keeper and putting the ball in the net instead.
UEFA also ordered the striker to do "one full day of community football service".
Adriano scored a hat-trick as Shakhtar came away with a 5-2 victory to book their place in the knockout stage.
The suspension will have an impact on Chelsea, who need the Ukrainians to win to have any chance of going through.
Shakhtar accepted the sanctions and admitted Luiz Adriano had set a bad example with "unacceptable" actions.
The club said it a statement: "Before the beginning of the UEFA hearing regarding Luiz Adriano's case, Shakhtar Donetsk made it very clear publicly that it would accept UEFA's decision in regard to the player.
"We apologised and expressed deep disappointment over the incident, which occurred during a Champions League match with FC Nordsjaelland on November 20.
"Shakhtar Donetsk strongly believe that fair play is a fundamental part of football. Our players fully understand that they are role models for Shakhtar's young fans and the entire football community as a whole, and such actions on their part are not acceptable."