Stoke player Sorensen, 36, revealed his decision on Twitter - 13 years after making his debut for Denmark.
He faced the demanding task of replacing Peter Schmeichel but quickly established himself in the Danish side.
He was part of the squad which took part in the 2002 and 2010 World Cups as well as Euro 2004 when they reached the quarter-finals.
Sorensen tweeted: "I have today made the announcement that I am finishing my international career.
"So proud to have represented Denmark 101 times. Time of my life."
Sorensen also played in England for Sunderland and Aston Villa before moving to Stoke on a free transfer five years ago.