The Catalan club announced in March that the 32-year-old Frenchman needed a transplant almost exactly a year after the defender had surgery to remove a liver tumour, with the Abidal's cousin Gerard donating the organ.
A short statement on Barca's website said: "The French defender was discharged form hospital today [Monday] after his liver transplant on April 10.
"The club's medical services released a bulletin explaining: "Given the particulars of his recovery process. Abidal will have to undergo a number of hospital check-ups.""
Following his first operation in March 2011, Abidal was out for just seven weeks, returning to the team for the end-of-season run-in with a number of substitute appearance.
His only start during that spell was in the Champions League final victory over Manchester United, when he was given the honour of lifting the trophy.