A first-half strike from Juan Arango and a Max Kruse penalty in the second increased the pressure on Gertjan Verbeek as his side dropped into the bottom three.
Gladbach were in the right mood early on, with Raphael Schafer making a sharp save to deny Patrick Herrmann from 10 yards.
The first goal for the Foals came after 17 minutes when Venezuelan veteran Arango saw his free-kick take a wicked deflection off the Nuremberg wall and wrong-foot goalkeeper Raphael Schafer.
Arango was making his 150th appearance for the club, although he is still to sign a new deal at Gladbach.
After 34 minutes Nuremberg's sought-after Swiss striker Josip Drmic, who was impressing, headed a Hiroshi Kiyotake cross against a post.
Gladbach keeper Marc-Andre ter Stegen then quickly gathered Hanno Ballistch's shot from the rebound.
Drmic's sharpness was causing problems for a makeshift Gladbach back four and he headed wide on 41 minutes from Marvin Plattenhardt's delivery.
Nuremburg have relied on Drmic this season and he has responded with 15 goals, but, with the striker drawing a blank on Saturday, offered nothing else to worry the visitors.
As the game became stretched in the second half Gladbach looked increasingly dangerous going forward and were denied by the woodwork on 72 minutes when Raffael set up a perfect chance for Kruse.
The Germany international was on target just three minutes later, though, tucking home the spot-kick after being fouled in the area to keep Gladbach in the hunt for a top-four finish.