Conte, who led the Turin giants to their second straight Serie A title in 2012-13, beat Fiorentina's Vincenzo Montella to the accolade by three votes.
Juve sit top of the standings, 11 points clear of Roma with 12 games remaining.
Coaches in Serie A and Serie B vote on the award, which is known as the Panchina d'Oro.
Inter's former Napoli boss Walter Mazzarri finished third.
Eusebio Di Francesco was named Serie B's top coach after leading Sassuolo to an historic promotion last season.
Di Francesco has since left the Emilian club but expressed his gratitude to the coaches who had nominated him.
He told the Gazzetta dello Sport: "It was an exciting season and we out-performed some very important teams. It is an award I'll share with my staff and with the players, who were outstanding."
Conte later told juventus.com: "This award follows the one I received from the AIC (Italian Footballers' Association), which means that the whole football world appreciates our extraordinary work.
"It's a source of great satisfaction. I dedicate this award to my family, the staff, the players - without them I would not be here - and the club."