Azzurri vice-captain De Rossi was left out after punching Inter Milan striker Mauro Icardi during Saturday's goalless Serie A match in Rome.
Although not spotted by Italian referee Mauro Bergonzi, the incident was captured on television footage and De Rossi is expected to face a ban from the Lega Serie A's disciplinary body.
Sunderland midfielder Emanuele Giaccherini was among the 26 players included in Prandelli's squad announced by the Italian federation on Sunday evening. The 28-year-old has scored three goals in 15 Barclays Premier League appearances for the Black Cats this term.
Torino striker Ciro Immobile and the Parma duo of defender Gabriele Paletta and midfielder Marco Parolo have also been rewarded for their strong performances this season with international call-ups.
However, Mario Balotelli misses out due to a shoulder injury.