Cyril Thereau converted from the penalty spot in the 37th minute to put the hosts on their way.
Luca Rigoni secured all three points by scoring his team's second in the 68th minute.
Chievo tasted victory for the first time since December 8 while Catania had their four-match unbeaten run came to an end.
The visitors had the first chance of the game in the 10th minute when Mariano Izco's bullet strike from 30 yards was kept out by Catania goalkeeper Mariano Andujar.
Catania should have gone in front midway through the first half but Gonzalo Bergessio's header from Keko's cross went just wide of the far post.
Chievo almost broke the deadlock in the 33rd minute when Thereau fed Tiberio Guarente in the penalty area but his right-footed shot was kept out by Andujar.
The hosts were handed a golden opportunity shortly after when the referee awarded a penalty following Pablo Alvarez's handball in the area.
Thereau stepped up to take the spot-kick and struck the ball towards the bottom right corner of the goal and out of Andujar's reach.
Catania almost pulled level four minutes into the second half but Alvarez's close-range header from Francesco Lodi's free-kick was kept out by Chievo goalkeeper Michael Agazzi.
Despite Catania's attempts, it was Chievo that scored again.
Rigoni got behind Guarente's cross and his powerful header beat Andujar.
Catania never gave up and in the 81st minute Agazzi was forced to fully stretch to clear Lodi's stinging drive from 30 yards.
The win lifted Chievo to 16th place, one point clear of the relegation zone.
Catania, meanwhile, dropped to 19th position, two points adrift of safety.