Two headed goals from Imanol Agirretxe gave the Basque side an early lead but the hosts, helped by a soaked pitch which limited La Real's ability to move the ball around, responded with goals by Ciprian Marica and Pedro Leon.
Borja Fernandez was sent off in the second half for picking up two yellow cards but La Real were unable to take advantage.
The visitors, who qualified for the quarter-finals of the Copa del Rey in midweek and were looking to make up for the 5-1 defeat they suffered at Villarreal in their last league game, started strongly and took the lead after just four minutes, Agirretxe crashing in a header from a Carlos Vela cross.
Sociedad kept up the pressure after the goal, Antoine Griezmann forcing Miguel Angel Moya to make a fine save, and then the second goal arrived.
A rare Getafe attack came to nothing and Vela raced down the wing, finding Agirrexte again and the striker headed past Moya for a second time.
Despite little support from a near empty stadium, Getafe found their way back into the game.
Sociedad failed to clear a corner and the ball fell to Ciprian, who to the amazement of the visiting defence was onside, and the Romanian calmly shot into the bottom corner.
The hosts then dominated the rest of the first half and had four chances to level, the best of which fell to Leon, who was put clean through on goal but goalkeeper Claudio Bravo blocked his shot.
Getafe's revival continued into the second half, Alvaro Arroyo and Ciprian both going close, before Leon got the goal they craved, burying the ball into the bottom corner in a congested area.
But 10 minutes later all the hard work the hosts had done to get back in the game threatened to go to waste, as Fernandez was shown a second yellow card for tripping Markel Bergara.
But Luis Garcia's men held on for the point, the only scares coming when Mikel Gonzalez glanced a header just wide of the far post from a corner, although Vela thought he should have been awarded a penalty when Lisandro Lopez sent him tumbling just as he entered the area.