The 31-year-old former Germany, Aston Villa and Stuttgart midfielder announced on Wednesday that he is gay, having chosen to wait until the end of his playing career before going public with his news.
He becomes the highest-profile openly gay footballer the game has known, and hopes his move can persuade other closeted players to be open about their sexuality.
But Hitzlsperger, who also played for Everton and Lazio before retiring in September, accepts any player revealing his homosexuality in professional football could have a hard time.
There are many openly gay players in the women's game, including England captain Casey Stoney, but none active at a high level in men's football.
Hitzlsperger wrote on his website: "I have taken a conscious decision to confront publicly the prejudice and hostility shown towards homosexuals. I have nothing to be ashamed of.
"Homosexuality is simply ignored in football.
"The media, on the other hand, have been interested in the subject for years. It's just that the players concerned have not dared to declare their inclinations because the world of football still sees itself to some extent as a macho environment.
"The image of a gay player is typified by cliche and prejudice. The reality is rather different.
"People see a gay footballer as a contradiction in terms. And that is why virtually no professional player wants to expose himself to this kind of pressure."
Hitzlsperger initially came out in an interview with Germany's Die Zeit newspaper.
British Olympic diver Tom Daley announced in December he was in a relationship with a man while Surrey and England wicketkeeper Steven Davies, former Wales and British and Irish Lions captain Gareth Thomas and NBA player John Amaechi have all come out in recent years.
Hitzlsperger said: "Over the past year, a few professional athletes in other sporting disciplines have revealed their homosexuality.
"This is encouraging and the hope is that at some stage, it will cease to be something to write or talk about.
"Every human being should be able to live without fear of discrimination due to his or her background, skin colour, sexual orientation or religion.
"I do not see this as a political statement, but as a self-evident fact. I do hope, however, to take the public debate a step further. Our society is more open and tolerant than many people believe.
"By taking this step in public, I hope to be able to encourage young players and professional athletes. I firmly believe that professional sport and homosexuality are not mutually exclusive."
Amaechi, who came out in 2007, took to Twitter to welcome Hitzlsperger to "the club".
But Amaechi later told BBC Sport: "Football is toxic and not just for gay people - it's toxic for Asians who want to play the game, it's toxic for women who want to be executives, it's toxic for black people who want to do anything but play.
"But football doesn't see itself like that. It sees itself as this amazing, wonderful, bold and progressive organisation.
"Footballers coming out at the highest level will happen only as the product of a cultural change within the game. It will not be the precursor to cultural change.
"If you want to see people coming out and playing at their best because they're able to be who they are, then the culture of football must change first."
Hitzlsperger told BBC Radio 4's Today programme he could not predict with any confidence the reaction if an active player revealed he was gay.
He said: "I don't know if football is such a homophobic environment. People just speculate that this would be the case but since we don't know, we have not really seen a gay football player in the Premiership or in the Bundesliga, it's hard to say that this would happen.
"We have to wait and see."
He acknowledged that it was odd that no current player in top-flight football had come out.
"We always talk about the statistics that a certain percentage of people in the population must be gay and in football there is not a single person in a European top league, of course that's a bit bizarre. But we shouldn't make it such a big deal," Hitzlsperger said.
He added that in dressing rooms "there was speculation and rumours about possible gay football players but other than that we didn't have serious discussions about possible homosexuals and how would we react, how would the fans react".