Mehdi Benatia scored in either half with Mattia Destro and Gervinho also finding the net to give Roma a comfortable win.
Juventus' 4-1 victory at Atalanta means Roma remain five points adrift but this performance was another demonstration of their quality this season.
Catania began brightly with early chances for Tiberio Guarente and Lucas Castro, but that was hardly a sign of things to come.
Instead, Benatia opened the scoring when he met Destro flicked on a corner and he was on hand to finish from close range.
Roma's forwards were forming a queue to shoot at Alberto Frison's goal and the only surprise was that Catania made it to half-time without conceding again as Gervinho, Miralem Pjanic and Adem Ljajic all passed up opportunities to add to the lead.
However, some more clinical finishing in the second half ended the game as a contest before the hour mark.
Francesco Totti and Dodo both went close soon after the restart before the second goal came.
Destro got it in the 55th minute, finishing from close range after Maicon's cross had caused panic in the Catania defence.
Four minutes later, Ljajic whippped in a free-kick and Benatia got the touch to head it home.
It was left to Gervinho to add the cherry on top with a left-footed strike 10 minutes from time, giving Roma a comprehensive victory.