The Senegal international has been sidelined for much of the season and though he made his return in the 2-0 loss to Bayer Leverkusen on Saturday, he left the field just 19 minutes after coming on as a substitute.
The former Manchester United player underwent a scan on Monday and the results revealed a tear of muscle fibres to his left thigh, but no severe muscular damage.
He will miss Hannover's home game against Hertha Berlin in the Bundesliga on Friday night and has also been ruled out of his country's World Cup qualifier against the Ivory Coast on October 12, but he could return to action following the international break.
Diouf scored two and set up two in the first three games of the season before picking up an ankle injury while on international duty at the start of the month.
He denied being rushed back into action at the weekend, telling the Bild newspaper: "I felt good, it wasn't a risk."