The Biancoceleste had gone into the encounter at the Stadio Olimpico looking to make up for Sunday's 2-0 loss to city rivals Roma.
Honorato Ederson put the hosts on their way in the sixth minute before Catania midfielder Pablo Barrientos equalised two minutes later.
Senad Lulic then put Lazio in front in the 39th minute.
Catania's hopes of an equaliser got more complicated after defender Giuseppe Bellusci was sent off for a second bookable offence on the hour mark.
Lazio substitute Hernanes killed the game off at the death.
The result was Lazio's third victory of the campaign while it left Catania still searching for their first win of the season.
Lazio went in front in the fourth minute when Catania goalkeeper Mariano Andujar failed to hold onto Antonio Candreva's powerful free-kick and the ball fell to Bruno Pereirinha who fed Ederson for the easy tap-in.
The hosts' joy was shortlived as shortly after Catania equalised.
Lazio defender Lorik Cana's poor clearance allowed Barrientos to surge inside the area and strike the ball towards the bottom left corner of goal to beat goalkeeper Federico Marchetti.
Lazio were unlucky not to go back in front in the ninth minute when Lulic's 10-yard shot hit the right post with Andujar already beaten.
Candreva should have made it 2-1 in the 18th minute but his close-range effort went over the bar.
Lazio's efforts paid off before the break when a poor clearance by Tiberio Guarante allowed Lulic to enter the area and drilled a low shot past Andujar.
Catania suffered a huge setback when Bellusci was shown his second yellow card following a late challenge on Ogenyi Onazi.
In the 67th minute, Andujar kept Catania in the game when he made a crucial save to clear Sergio Floccari's goal-bound shot.
With five minutes remaining, Hernanes was twice denied by Andujar.
However, Andujar could do nothing to save Hernanes' bullet strike towards the far post.