Khedira missed out due to injury when Germany faced Austria and Poland earlier this month, while Aogo was not selected for those matches.
Bayern Munich striker Mario Gomez also returns after pulling out of the last squad through injury.
Germany have already qualified for Euro 2012, but they will be looking to complete their qualifying campaign with a perfect record by winning in Istanbul and Dusseldorf.
"It was important for us to qualify for the finals of the European Championships as early as possible and we did that in September against Austria," said Low.
"Now we want to keep our concentration high for the games against Turkey and Belgium.
"Our aim is to end the qualifying campaign unbeaten and with 10 wins from 10 matches."
Given the lack of surprises in Low's squad, the 24 players he has named are likely to be the main candidates for places in the final squad next summer.
Sven Bender and Marcel Schmelzer, who have been left out of this squad, are two further contenders as Low starts to narrow down his selection over the next six months.
"Both of them have had several knocks in recent weeks so we have decided to leave them out this time," he explained.
"I have spoken to both of them on the phone and they should use the next days to train well with their clubs."