Manchester City skipper Toure complained to Romanian referee Ovidiu Hategan about racist chants coming from the CSKA Moscow supporters during Wednesday night's Champions League game in the Russian capital and the Professional Footballers' Association said the match official should have stopped the match and ensured that a stadium announcement was made warning that the chants must cease.
PFA deputy chief executive Bobby Barnes, who is also European president on the international players' union FIFPro, said: "We're very disappointed that a clear agreed protocol which is designed to deal with these situations was not effected.
"The player, having done what was asked of him to notify the referee, quite rightly expected that the referee would go to speak with the safety officer, and the (UEFA) protocol agreed is that the safety officer should make a stadium announcement warning the fans that if the chants do not desist then the game will be stopped.
"Obviously it's difficult in a pressure situation, referees have lots to think about but there are a number of officials at games, notwithstanding the fact you've got additional referees behind the goals in Champions League matches."
Barnes told FIFPro's website: "The player is very upset, as indeed are other players, not just black players but all players at the club.
"I would certainly hope in line with the hard-line stance that UEFA has stated and intends to use in these circumstances they will make a meaningful sanction in this case. It's important we send a message now."
Kick It Out chairman Lord Herman Ouseley also raised the issue of the referee's handling of the complaint by Toure.
Ouseley told Press Association Sport: "The referee's job is to protect players. Why did he not do his job, stop the game and deal with it?
"FIFA president Sepp Blatter has made it quite clear that no player should have to deal with that kind of abuse and that if you are a referee you should stop the game."
CSKA have denied that their fans racially abused Toure.
The Russian club's deputy media manager Michael Sanadze told Sky Sports News: "There is no subject to discuss. Nothing special happened.
"There was a lot of noise in the stadium. Nobody else, other than Yaya Toure, heard anything. The only trouble that has come about was because Yaya Toure heard something."
However Manchester City insist it was not just Toure who heard the abuse.
Club officials say they also heard the monkey chants, as did other players, and that the abuse was mentioned by broadcast media during television transmissions.
The club lodged a verbal complaint with the UEFA match delegate on Wednesday night and are expected to follow that up in writing on Thursday.
UEFA is investigating the allegations and has warned that clubs will no longer escape with just fines if their supporters are guilty of racist abuse.
A first offence of racist behaviour by supporters carries a sanction of a partial stadium closure and a second offence leads to a full stadium closure plus a fine.
UEFA's communications director David Farrelly told Press Association Sport: "We are waiting for the reports from the referee and the match delegate as they are our eyes and ears at the match.
"UEFA now has new regulations in place which were brought in at the start of the season.
"The executive committee, supported by the UEFA Congress, felt that fines were not a deterrent - this is not a financial problem, it is a human problem - and decided to change the regulations in order to tackle the problem in a more effective way."
So far this season, UEFA has imposed full stadium bans on three clubs while five other clubs have had partial stadium closures imposed.