The 18-year-old, who is currently completing his A-levels in Gelsenkirchen, found out he was part of Joachim Low's preliminary 27-man squad for the Euros after a history lesson, according to the Bild newspaper.
"This call-up was totally unexpected," said Draxler, who scored a stunning goal for Schalke in their 3-2 win over Werder Bremen on Saturday.
"I just listened to my mailbox during a break at school and there was a message from the national team coach Joachim Low.
"This is a great honour for me. Of course I will give it my best."
Draxler was rather expecting a call from Germany's Under-19s boss Horst Hrubesch for their upcoming European Championships qualifiers, but now he has a chance of going to the senior event in Poland and Ukraine.
The uncapped midfielder, who made his Schalke debut as the fourth-youngest top-flight debutant ever just over a year ago, now has three weeks to convince Low that he deserves a place in his final 23-man squad for the finals.
He will be joining the squad for a training camp in Sardinia from Friday, when school is out.