Filip Daems converted a penalty for Gladbach in the 65th minute and De Camargo doubled the score in the 70th minute.
Last-placed Gladbach have two wins in their last three games to jump to 22 points - three points from a safe spot.
Hoffenheim have not won in four matches to remain on 33 points for ninth place.
The first chance of the contest went to Gladbach after eight minutes with Juan Arango shooting just wide after a cross by De Camargo.
Hoffenheim appeared to score 10 minutes later but Ryan Babel was offside from Matthias Jaissle's headed pass.
De Camargo nearly scored his first goal in the 35th minute but Hoffenheim keeper Tom Starke stopped the Belgian international with a fine reaction.
Starke was close to causing an own goal in the 56th minute as Hoffenheim defender Marvin Compper's clearance attempt went off his keeper and just barely to corner.
The patient Gladbach side finally grabbed the lead with 35 minutes to play. Starke held De Camargo in the area and referee Florian Meyer pointed to the spot where Daems' strike to the lower right corner was just out of the reach of Starke.
Starke had no chance as Gladbach made it 2-0 in the 70th minute with De Camargo having plenty of space to head home Arango's corner kick from the left side.
Starke made a superb save from De Camargo six minutes later to keep Hoffenheim in the game.
And the final chance for the guests came a minute later with Babel shooting just over the crossbar.