Schlaudraff gave Hannover the lead in the 17th minute and Mohammed Abdellaoue made it 2-0 in the 45th minute. Schlaudraff struck again in the 57th minute.
Hannover had collected just one win and scored two goals in the previous four games but victory moved them to 41 points for third place.
Relegation-threatened Kaiserslautern have earned just two points in a six-game winless run and remain in 16th place.
Kaiserslautern had the first chance after just seven minutes as Hannover's Konstantin Rausch cleared Srdjan Lakic's header from a corner off the line.
Hannover grabbed the lead 10 minutes later with Didier Ya Konan snatching the ball from Martin Amedick and passing out to Schlaudraff, who beat goalkeeper Tobias Sippel by firing in at the left.
The hosts doubled the lead just seconds before the break. Ya Konan fed a through-ball to Abdellaoue, who chipped inside the far right post for a 2-0 advantage.
Hannover finished off Kaiserslautern for good 12 minutes into the second half as a failed clearance attempt went to Schlaudraff, who hammered his shot into the upper right corner for a 3-0 cushion.
Kaiserslautern refused to give up, with Ivo Ilicevic's looping shot from 16 yards going just wide of the left post in the 63rd minute.
Hannover again cleared off the line eight minutes later, with Steven Cherundolo blocking Lakic's header.
Lakic then headed just over the crossbar with 18 minutes to play.
Hannover missed a chance to make it 4-0 in the 83rd minute with Ya Konan finding only the right sidenetting.