Heimeroth's new deal comes a day after Monchengladbach signed Basle goalkeeper Yann Sommer as a replacement for the departing Marc-Andre ter Stegen.
The 32-year-old's contract was due to run out in the summer.
"With his experience and character, Christofer will perfectly complement our new goalkeeper Yann Sommer," sporting director Max Eberl said in a statement on the club's official website.
"We are delighted that we have him in our squad for two more years."
Heimeroth moved to the Foals in 2006 and has played 79 matches after mainly being used as a back-up goalkeeper.
Sommer has agreed a five-year deal and will make the move north of the border in the summer.
The Switzerland international is set to replace Ter Stegen who has stated his desire to leave Monchengladbach in the summer.
Germany international Ter Stegen is expected to join Barcelona, with an announcement due once their current number one Victor Valdes finds himself a new club for next season.