Anthony Modeste and Kevin Volland score for Markus Gisdol's men with Braimir Hrgota's goal on target for the visitors.
The game between two sides whose combined eight previous games had seen 42 goals ended with just three added to that tally, and Hoffenheim taking the spoils.
Volland nearly gave Hoffenheim a flying start in the fifth minute, but his shot from the edge of the penalty area struck the inside of the post.
Gladbach then took charge, but despite having most of the possession, they were unable to create any danger.
Hoffenheim looked strong in defence and incisive on the break, taking the lead on the stroke of half time when Modeste beat Filip Daems in the air to meet Tarik Elyounoussi's left-wing cross and claim his fourth goal of the season.
The visitors finally got in a shot on goal early in the second half with Juan Arango finding the side-netting before Raffael shot straight at Koen Casteels.
Moments later, Volland showed Raffael how it is done at the other end, setting up the chance with an excellent first touch before providing the finish from a tight angle with his second touch.
The game opened up with Gladbach forced to commit more men forward, including substitute Hrgota, who gave them hope in the 75th minute.
He managed to get past four defenders with the ball seemingly glued to his foot before he lifted it past Casteels and in off the far post.
Hoffenheim managed to resist Gladbach's late rally to pick up their second win of the season and first since the second weekend of the season to move up to seventh.
Gladbach lost their third game to remain in the bottom half of the table with six points from their first five games.