Ivica Olic's goal was a scant consolation for the Wolves, who slipped to 11th in the Bundesliga standings.
There were numerous chances at both ends with Gustavo hitting the woodwork before being dismissed on another disappointing day for Dieter Hecking's men.
Son Heung-min created the first moment of danger early on but his cross was too far in front of Kiessling.
It was Leverkusen's third forward Sam who struck first in the 24th minute with a shot in off the inside of the left-hand post after being put through by captain Simon Rolfes.
Wolfsburg responded with Olic going close twice before he got the goal he was looking for to mark his 34th birthday.
He took the ball on the volley from Ricardo Rodriguez's cross, leaving Bernd Leno no chance.
Leno was beaten again minutes later, but the crossbar came to his rescue and denied Gustavo from distance.
Son and Sam both missed good opportunities as Leverkusen regained the initiative in the second half, and they were rewarded midway through the second half when Kiessling got his name on the scoresheet with a header.
Gustavo saw the yellow card twice as the match threatened to boil over, but among all that, Kiessling kept his composure to score from a tight angle and seal Leverkusen's victory in stoppage time.