Kevin Vogt struck six minutes from time as Markus Weinzierl's men went home with all three points from their local rivals, who finished the game with 10 men.
It was a deserved win for an Augsburg side who showed they are currently Bavaria's second force behind Bayern Munich, leaving Michael Wiesinger with a lot of work to do to turn Nuremberg's season around.
Weinzierl saw no reason to change his side from the one which defeated Stuttgart a week ago, notching the first points of the season, while Hiroshi Kiyotake was back in the Nuremberg side after being left out against Bayern last weekend.
Augsburg started as they meant to go on with Matthias Ostrzolek's cross only just evading Sascha Molders, who continues his search for his first goal of the season.
Andre Hahn's headed effort was then saved by Raphael Schafer as Augsburg piled on the pressure, Halil Altintop going close with another header.
It was one-way traffic in the second half too as Augsburg continued to give the impression that they were the home team and not Nuremberg.
Javier Pinola picked up a second yellow card in the 78th minute, giving Augsburg even more room to exploit for the final 10 minutes.
And they did just that with Vogt on hand to score the winner after Tobias Werner's effort came back off the post.