The Serbian's four-month tenure came to an end after "qualifying to the group stage of the Asian zone World Cup qualifier in a rather alarming fashion", according to a statement from QFA.
Qatar were beaten 2-1 by Vietnam in Hanoi last month in the second leg of the qualifier, although still progressed 4-2 on aggregate.
QFA president Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani said: "We thank him for his efforts. But we feel this is a time to move on so we mutually agreed to end the contract."
Brazilian Lazaroni has now been charged with the task of steering Qatar through World Cup qualifying.
The former Brazil, Fenerbahce and Fiorentina coach was most recently in charge of domestic league side Qatar Sports Club.