Zhu Jiawei struck the only goal of the game 10 minutes after half-time as lowly Shenxin inflicted only a second home defeat on Shandong this season.
The result means Evergrande can now move even further clear at the top if they beat second-bottom Tianjin Teda on Saturday.
Third-placed Beijing Guoan also slipped up, going down 2-0 at Changchun Yatai to remain nine points behind Shandong. Felix Isac scored both goals for Changchun either side of half--time.
The teams in fourth and fifth place, Guizhou Renhe and Guangzhou, also dropped points.
Guizhou were held 1-1 at Dalian Aerbin, Fabio Rochemback's 14th-minute equaliser for the hosts cancelling out Chenglin Zhang's opener, while Guangzhou played out a goalless draw at home to Jiangsu Shuntian.
In Friday's other match, China forward Wang Song's brace (37 and 58) led Hangzhou Greentown to a 2-1 victory over Qingdao Zhongneng, who pulled a goal back through Pablo Caballero (59).